Broadcasting and Telecommunication Convergence
The convergence of broadcasting and telecommunications can be witnessed everywhere. A substantial growth in market entry is increasing the potential for competition, and in turn, more diverse and innovative services are emerging. This development places increasing pressure on the existing broadcasting and telecommunications regulatory framework to change, as new services are created and markets converge. It also brings into question the tradition of combining two different sets of regulations with a different scope: regulations related to spectrum management, and those designed to meet certain social objectives, such as developing national identity or cultural diversity. At its core, convergence challenges existing broadcasting and telecommunications regulation, as these currently are neither coherent nor flexible enough to respond to the changes occurring in broadcasting and telecommunications As the impact of convergence becomes more pervasive, regulatory institution reform emerges as one of the most important subjects in regulatory policy.
In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.
an optimization problem consists of maximizing or minimizing a real function by systematically choosing input values from within an allowed set and computing the value of the function. The generalization of optimization theory and techniques to other formulations constitutes a large area of applied mathematics. More generally, optimization includes finding “best available” values of some objective function given a defined domain (or input), including a variety of different types of objective functions and different types of domains
Game theory is “the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers”.
Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as logic, computer science and biology. Originally, it addressed zero-sum games. Today, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans, animals, and computers.
The games studied in game theory are well-defined mathematical objects. To be fully defined, a game must specify the following elements: the players of the game, the information and actionsavailable to each player at each decision point, and the payoffs for each outcome. A game theorist typically uses these elements, along with a solution concept of their choosing, to deduce a set of equilibrium strategies for each player such that, when these strategies are employed, no player can profit by unilaterally deviating from their strategy. These equilibrium strategies determine an equilibrium to the game—a stable state in which either one outcome occurs or a set of outcomes occur with known probability.
Big Data Analytics
Big Data analytics is the process of collecting, organizing and analyzing large sets of data (called Big Data) to discover patterns and other useful information. Big Data analytics can help organizations to better understand the information contained within the data and will also help identify the data that is most important to the business and future business decisions.To analyze such a large volume of data, Big Data analytics is typically performed using specialized software tools and applications for predictive analytics, data mining, text mining, forecasting and data optimization. Collectively these processes are separate but highly integrated functions of high-performance analytics. Using Big Data tools and software enables an organization to process extremely large volumes of data that a business has collected to determine which data is relevant and can be analyzed to drive better business decisions in the future.